Pinchas Litvinovsky was born in in Novo-Georgiyevsk, Russia. In 1912, he was awarded a scholarship to study at the Academy of Art in Odessa where he met Boris Schatz, the founder of the Bezalel School of Arts and Crafts.
Schatz persuaded the young artist to come to Jerusalem to study at Bezalel. Litvinovsky accepted the invitation, but after a brief stay in Eretz Israel, returned to Russia to enter the Academy of Art in Petrograd.
In 1919, Litvinovsky immigrated to Eretz Israel with his wife, Liza. The family first settled in Jerusalem, but shortly thereafter moved to the Bitanya commune in the Galilee. From 1924 to 1928, Litvinovsky participated in exhibitions of the Jewish Artists' Association at the Jerusalem Citadel and shows at the Ohel Theater in Tel Aviv.
In 1926, Litvinovsky designed the set for the Habimah production of The Dibuk, under the direction of Menahem Gnessin, and met for the first time actress Hanna Rovina, of whom he would paint many portraits during the following years.
In the 1930s, Litvinovsky made several trips to Paris, where he encountered the art of Matisse, Picasso, Rouault, and artists of the Jewish School of Paris. In 1935, he held his first solo exhibition at the Bezalel National Museum, and in 1939 was awarded the Dizengoff Prize. During this time, he and his family moved into a house, shared with artist Moshe Mokady and family. Together, Litvinovsky and Mokady established a painting studio.
Original works of Pinchas Livinovsky can be found in the Engel Galleries Israeli art collection.